Write a essay on the salient features of indus valley civilization

Salient aspects of Art, Architecture, literature from Ancient to Modern Times The ancient civilization in Indian sub-continent differed from those of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece in that its culture and traditions have been preserved without a breakdown to the present day. Critically evaluate this comment.

Write a essay on the salient features of indus valley civilization

Origin, Evolution and Characteristics Article shared by: Indus Valley Civilisation — Read this article to learn about the origin, evolution, and characteristic of the Indus valley civilisation: The Indus or Harappan culture arose in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent.

It is called Harappan civilisation because this was discovered first in at the modern site of Harappa, situated in the province of west Punjab in Pakistan. It is also called as Indus civilisation because it refers to precisely the same cultural, chronological and geographic entity confined to the geographic bounds of the Indus valley.

The Indus or the Harappan civilisation belongs to the Chalcolithic or Bronze Age since the objects of copper and stone were found at the various sites of this civilisation. Nearly, 1, Harappan sites are known so far in the sub-continent.

They belong to early, mature and late phases of the Harappan culture. But the number of the sites belonging to the mature phase is limited, and of them only half a dozen can be regarded as cities.

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Bisht, Kalibangan by Dr. Ghosh, LothalChanhu-daro, Banawalietc. The Harappan civilisation till recently showed no definite signs of birth and growth. The puzzle could largely be solved after the extensive excavation work conducted at Mehrgarh near the Bolan Pass between and by two French archaeologists Richard H.

Meadow and Jean Francoise Jarrige. According to them, Mehrgarh gives us an archaeological record with a sequence of occupations. Archaeological research over the past decades has established a continuous sequence of strata, showing the gradual development to the high standard of the full-fledged Indus civilisation.

These strata have been named pre-Harappan, early Harappan, mature Harappan and late Harappan phases or stages. Any Pre-Harappan culture claiming ancestry to the Indus civilisation must satisfy two conditions. The first condition is that it must not only precede but also overlap the Indus culture.

The second is that the essential elements of the Indus culture must have been anticipated by the Proto-Harappan Indus culture in its material aspects, viz, the rudiments of town planning, provision of minimum sanitary facilities, knowledge of pictographic writing, the introduction of trade mechanisms, the knowledge of metallurgy and the prevalence of ceramic traditions.

The different stages of the indigenous evolution of the Indus can be documented by an analysis of four sites which reflect the sequence of the four important stages or phases in the pre-history and proto-history of the Indus valley region.

The sequence begins with the transition of nomadic herdsmen to settled agricultural communities as per the evidence found at the first site i. Mehrgarh near the Bolan Pass. It continues with the growth of large villages and the rise of towns in the second stage exemplified at Amri.

The Amri people did not possess any knowledge of town-planning or of writing. The third stage in the sequence leads to the emergence of the great cities as in Kalibangan and finally ends with their decline, which is the fourth stage and exemplified by Lothal.

Amri, Kot-Dijian and Kalibangan cultures are stratigraphically found to be pre-Harappan.

Myth, Philosophy, Why the Greeks?, Parmenides, Greek History Mehrgarh Kili Gul Mohammad 1.
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The Harappan were owed certain elements such as the fish scale and pipal leaf to the Sothi ware. The four Baluchi cultures, viz, Zhob, Quetta, Nal and Kulli, undoubtedly pre-Harappan, also have some minor common features with the Indus civilisation, and cannot be considered as full-fledged proto-Harappan cultures.

This culture is characterised by black and red ware and terracotta female figurines. Nal culture is characterised by the use of white-clipped ware with attractive polychrome paintings and the observance of fractional burial.

The characteristic pottery of the Quetta culture is the buff-ware, painted in black pigment and decorated with geometrical designs. Apart from the painted motifs such as the pipal leaf and sacred brazier, some pottery shapes are common to the Harappan and Kulli cultures.

All these pre-Harappan habitations preceding the phase of the Harappan civilization shows evidences of people living in houses of stone and mud-brick.The Polish government is encouraging citizens to go forth and multiply - like rabbits. The health ministry of Poland has put out a short YouTube .

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The Origin of Philosophy: The Attributes of Mythic/ Mythopoeic Thought. The pioneering work on this subject was The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man, An Essay on Speculative Thought in the Ancient Near East by Henri Frankfort, H.A.

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write a essay on the salient features of indus valley civilization

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