Structuralism and Semiotics Structuralism Structuralism is a way of thinking about the world which is predominantly concerned with the perceptions and description of structures.
Ivar Lovaas' landmark study, scientific and legal attention has been lavished on Applied Behaviour Analysis as an autism treatment. Dr Lovaas' supporters and opponents, whether principled or opportunist, have been loud, plentiful, prolific, and well-credentialed.
But when it comes to the test of ethics, to allotting autistics rudimentary ethical consideration, all sides and factions for and against ABA have persistently and thoroughly failed. In an investigation of this failure, diverse aspects of ethical standards in the autism-ABA industry are explored and compared.
A framework emerges suggesting the nature and scope, as well as the causes and motives, of the unethical treatment of autistics. At the same time, a narrative emerges. It resonates with the past and current unethical treatment of other atypical human beings.
Since ethics problems do not spontaneously resolve themselves, instead tending to accumulate and escalate, the interlocking framework and narrative are put to work. This results in specific ethical challenges, and some proposed remedies, for behaviourists of all kinds who have as their goal extinguishing autistic behaviour, and therefore autistic people.
Introducing behaviourists and behaviourist ethics Not everyone is a behaviourist these days, but so long as the target for behaviour modification is autistic, the ranks are impressive.
Apart from the behaviour analysts themselves, autism-ABA adherents include therapists, educators and instructors; parents, grandparents, friends-of-the-family; funding bodies, autism societies, professional and pressure groups; professors, lawyers, judges, and journalists; politicians, bureaucrats, and the Quebec Human Rights Commission.
All have failed to notice that they themselves are behaving unethically. Instead, they are taking for granted that any ethical concerns about ABA have already been dealt with and disposed of.
When systematically hurting autistic children in ABA programs raised ethical concerns, to the point where laws were passed, ABA became non-aversive: The just concerns about continuing physical punishment of autistics in other programs can no longer be used as ammunition against ABA.
Then there is the behaviourist quandary of whether a controlled trial of autism-ABA would be ethical, since the controls would be deprived of this presumed-to-be-effective treatment.
ABA goes nowhere without its unique vapour trail of adjectives like "scientifically-proven" and "medically-necessary". Parents and researchers alike have found this sky-writing difficult to resist. In consequence, protocols like randomized assignment and matched controls have been switched from the good science camp to the bad ethics camp: An objective observer might notice how circular this logic is, and how expedient.
Rhetoric in autism treatment Another issue has earned the attention of behaviourists. Inthe mother of two autistic boys testified before a US bioethics committee. She pleaded that applying ethical standards, in the area of informed consent, to autism research would be harmful to autistics.
ASAT's stringent scientific standards are splashed around its website and newsletter and are integral to its mission. With the authority of its hefty advisory board, ASAT reported that good science and good ethics are incompatible in autism.
Further, ethics would be destructive of autism research and the death of hope for parents of autistics everywhere. More recently, Dr Catherine Maurice tackled a series of autism-ABA ethics questions, about recovery from autism, posed by an on-line journal with "Leadership" in its title.
Her stratagem was to substitute in each question the word "cancer" for the word "autism". She sealed her argument by rebranding ABA as chemotherapy, and who's against chemotherapy? This piece of rhetoric then showed up in ASAT's newsletter.Critically examine a range of theoretical approaches to learning and communication.
Discuss how the learning and communication theories apply to your own teaching and promote inclusive practice. The aim of this essay is to identify and discuss the significance of relevant theories and principles of learning and communication.
I will analyse the impact of theories of learning. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. Published: Mon, 5 Dec From , child minders, nurseries, pre-schools and reception classes are required to pursue the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS), and .
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Dec 04, · Management Principles developed by Henri Fayol: DIVISION OF WORK: Work should be divided among individuals and groups to ensure that effort and attention are focused on special portions of the task.
Fayol presented work specialization as the .