Costa and McCrae reported that they began by looking for the broad and agreed-upon traits of Neuroticism N and Extraversion Ebut cluster analyses led them to a third broad trait, Openness to Experience O. Agreeableness A and Conscientiousness C.
Faced with an increasingly competitive business environment, many employers are turning to employment testing as a way to improve their workforces. In a recent survey, forty percent of Fortune companies indicated that their employment selection systems included some form of psychological testing.
A similar survey by the American Management Association showed that forty-four percent of its responding members used testing to select employees. While cognitive ability tests continue to be the most commonly used form of psychological testing in the workplace, personality tests are being used more and more frequently.
Personality tests are self-report measures of what might be called traits, temperaments, or dispositions. The number of personality measures available is enormous.
Some personality measures focus on characterizing individuals within the normal adult range of functioning, while others focus on the identification of psychopathology. Many personality instruments such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI produce measures of a substantial number of personality characteristics; others concentrate on measuring single traits.
Employers use different types of personality tests for different purposes. For example, an insurance company The benefits of using personality tests use a measure of extroversion-introversion to select applicants for a sales job so that their characteristics match successful incumbents in their sales force.
Similarly, a police department might use the MMPI or a similar test to screen out applicants for mental instability or psychopathology. Perhaps the most commonly used personality tests are honesty or integrity tests.
They are used predominantly in the retail and financial services industries for low-paying entry level jobs in settings where employees have unsupervised access to money or merchandise.
Integrity tests are designed to predict proneness for theft and other forms of counterproductive work behavior in job applicants. Because the number of employers using integrity tests in the workplace is growing rapidly, it is useful to discuss them in some detail.
Prior to the passage of the Employee Polygraph Protection Act ofthe pre-employment polygraph was the method of choice for screening applicants in many industries. It is estimated that 70 to 80 percent of the four million polygraphs given annually were for pre-employment selection purposes.
The Employee Polygraph Protection Act changed everything.
Except in limited circumstances, private employers were prohibited from using a pre-employment polygraph to screen applicants. With the polygraph no longer available, employers turned to paper and pencil integrity tests to perform the screening function. Byit was estimated that 6, organizations administered up to 5 million integrity tests annually.
Although there is currently no federal regulation of integrity testing, a few states have restricted their use under their anti-polygraph statutes.
For example, the Rhode Island statute does not ban integrity tests, but it requires that such tests not constitute the "primary basis" of an employment decision.
Massachusetts forbids the use of any written technique that provides a diagnostic opinion of honesty, a proscription so broad that it may prohibit not only integrity tests but also the use of application blanks, reference checks, structured interviews, and the validity scales of most psychological tests as well.
To understand the benefits and risks associated with integrity testing, it is useful to briefly review the different types of tests. There are three basic types of integrity tests: Overt Integrity Tests Overt integrity tests were specifically designed to predict the predisposition of job applicants to engage in on-the-job theft and other counterproductive job behavior.
They measure attitudes related to one or more of the following psychological constructs: These tests typically consist of two sections. The first is a measure of theft attitudes, and includes questions about beliefs concerning the frequency and extent of theft, punitiveness toward theft, ruminations about theft, and assessments of one's own honesty.
The second involves requests for admissions regarding theft and other wrongdoing. Applicants are asked to describe the frequency and amount of theft and other illegal or counterproductive activity.
The test items that make up this type of instrument are clearly assessing job-related content. There has been a great deal of validity research showing that integrity test scores can predict theft behavior.
Overt integrity tests have been found to predict the following theft criteria:In an effort to reduce workers’ compensation claims, Hospitality Management Corp. launched pre-employment integrity testing at one hotel to see if the tests could weed out applicants likely to.
The Benefits of Using Personality Tests for Selection As U.S. companies rely more heavily on pre-screening tools like personality tests to select their candidates, the hiring process is becoming more efficient and successful.
Many employers utilize personality tests in the employment selection process to identify people who have more than just the knowledge and skills necessary to be successful in their jobs. If anecdotes are to be believed—Dilbert must be getting at something [ ].
There are many personality tests for companies to choose from, such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator or the Hogan Assessment plus many more, all of which use very different and in depth approaches to assessing a candidate’s personality.
Importance of Personality Testing. Personality and aptitude tests (psychometrics) are helpful for managing people and for understanding yourself.
You should also consider using personality and aptitude tests if you are recruiting or developing people. Even though the question types and personality categorization differ from test to test, they provide insight into the human psyche. In recent years, psychologists and human resources practitioners have suggested the use of personality testing as a tool to assist in making better and more informed hiring and developmental decisions.