Literary analysis on an excerpt from

Three sections constitute the scored part of the test; a required tie-breaking essay that invites the student to exercise his or her skill in literary analysis completes the test. Ability in Literary Criticism 15 two-point items Part 4: The main part of the Handbook is an alphabetically listed set of definitions and descriptors; from these definitions and descriptors are drawn roughly ten to twelve items. The UIL Reading List differs year to year The reading list has traditionally consisted of a novel, a drama, and a selection of poems, though from time to time a set of representative short stories has replaced the novel on the list.

Literary analysis on an excerpt from

Eric Hobsbawm is one of the best known historians of the Twentieth Century. In addition to many books on a variety of topics, Hobsbawm has written two important texts dealing with the subject of nationalism.

The excerpt included here is drawn from Nations and Nationalism since Neither objective nor subjective definitions are thus satisfactory, and both are Literary analysis on an excerpt from. In any case, agnosticism is the best initial posture of a student in this field, and so this book assumes no a priori definition of what constitutes a nation.

It pays particular attention to the changes and transformations of the concept, particularly towards the end of the nineteenth century. Concepts, of course, are not part of free-floating philosophical discourse, but socially, historically and locally rooted, and must be explained in terms of these realities.

For the rest, the position of the writer may be summarized as follows. This implication distinguishes modern nationalism from other and less demanding forms of national or group identification which we shall also encounter. It belongs exclusively to a particular, and historically recent, period.

Moreover, with Gellner I would stress the element of artifact, invention and social engineering which enters into the making of nations. Nations do not make states and nationalisms but the other way round.

Nations exist not only as functions of a particular kind of territorial state or the aspiration to establish one - broadly speaking, the citizen state of the French Revolution - but also in the context of a particular stage of technological and economic development.

Most students today will agree that standard national languages, spoken or written, cannot emerge as such before printing, mass literacy and hence, mass schooling.

It has even been argued that popular spoken Italian as an idiom capable of expressing the full range of what a twentieth-century language needs outside the domestic and face-to-face sphere of communication, is only being constructed today as a function of the needs of national television programming.

Nations and their associated phenomena must therefore be analyzed in terms of political, technical, administrative, economic and other conditions and requirements. For this reason they are, in my view, dual phenomena, constructed essentially from above, but which cannot be understood unless also analyzed from below, that is in terms of the assumptions, hopes, needs, longings and interests of ordinary people, which are not necessarily national and still less nationalist.

Excerpt - definition of excerpt by The Free Dictionary

That view from below, i. Fortunately social historians have learned how to investigate the history of ideas, opinions and feelings at the sub-literary level, so that we are today less likely to confuse, as historians once habitually did, editorials in select newspapers with public opinion.

We do not know much for certain. However, three things are clear. First, official ideologies of states and movements are not guides to what it is in the minds of even the most loyal citizens or supporters.

Second, and more specifically, we cannot assume that for most people national identification - when it exists - excludes or is always or ever superior to, the remainder of the set of identifications which constitute the social being. In fact, it is always combined with identifications of another kind, even when it is felt to be superior to them.

Thirdly, national identification and what it is believed to imply, can change and shift in time, even in the course of quite short periods. In my judgment this is the area of national studies in which, thinking and research are most urgently needed today.

The development of nations and nationalism within old-established states such as Britain and France, has not been studied very intensively, though it is now attracting attention. The existence of this gap is illustrated by the neglect, in Britain, of any problems connected with English nationalism - a term which in itself sounds odd to many ears - compared to the attention paid to Scots, Welsh, not to mention Irish nationalism.

Second, and in consequence, I follow his useful division of the history of national movements into three phases. In nineteenth-century Europe, for which it was developed, phase A was purely cultural, literary and folkloric, and had no particular political or even national implications, any more than the researches by non-Romanies of the Gypsy Lore Society have for the subjects of these enquiries.

My own concern in this book is more with phase C when - and not before - nationalist programmes acquire mass support, or at least some of the mass support that nationalists always claim they represent. The transition from phase B to phase C is evidently a crucial moment in the chronology of national movements.

Sometimes, as in Ireland, it occurs before the creation of a national state; probably very much more often it occurs afterwards, as a consequence of that creation.

Sometimes, as in the so- called Third World, it does not happen even then. Finally, I cannot but add that no serious historian of nations and nationalism can be a committed political nationalist, except in the sense in which believers in the literal truth of the Scriptures, while unable to make contributions to evolutionary theory, are not precluded from making contributions to archaeology and Semitic philology.Reviews, essays, books and the arts: the leading international weekly for literary culture.

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Literary analysis on an excerpt from

NOTE: Eric Hobsbawm is one of the best known historians of the Twentieth Century. In addition to many books on a variety of topics, Hobsbawm has written two important texts dealing with the subject of nationalism.

These include: Nations and Nationalism Since and The Invention of excerpt included here is drawn from Nations and Nationalism since Britain's War: Into Battle, and millions of other books are available for instant | Audible.

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