Topics covered will include object recognition, attention, memory, concepts, language, imagery, problem solving and reasoning and the neural bases of cognitive processes.
Kendler et al — AIM: Kendler wanted to investigate whether genetics had an effect of bulimia nervosa in families. Kendler gave 2, female twins personal, structured, and psychiatric interviews about Bulimia and risk factors for Bulimia.
However the concordance rate was quite low in the study, suggesting there while there are some genetic risk factors involved in bulimia nervosa there are also important non-genetic risk factors.
Kendler identified other risk factors relating to age, childhood experiences, dieting and psychological factors such as low self-esteem.
This shows that bulimia is more likely a result of biological, cognitive. Caspi — AIM: Cognitive theorists BECK and ELLIS believe that abnormality is caused by unrealistic, distorted or irrational understanding, perceptions and thoughts about oneself, others or the environment.
Abnormal behavior is also caused by difficulty in controlling thought processes or using them to control actions — A depressed mood can lead to depressed thoughts schemas — Depressed cognitions, cognitive distortions, and irrational beliefs produce disturbances in mood Cognitive distortion theory BECK — schema processing about self-interfering with info processing.
Goldapple — AIM: PET scans were used to document brain activity before and after 15 to 20 therapies of cognitive therapy over seven weeks in 14 patients.
PET scans from a previous study on participants taking antidepressants were used as a control group. Participants were screened to ensure that they had no substance problems or antidepressant treatment one month prior to the study.
The changes in the brain were the same as with antidepressants. Alloy et al — AIM: There was a link between cognitive style and development of depression, and that identifying negative thinking patterns may eventually help prevent depression. People who are not included in the in-group are defined as abnormal — Abnormal behaviour violates moral or ideal standards or differs from commonly accepted beliefs or ways of thinking.
It is a way to find a dispositional cause of disruptive behaviour instead of situational factors fundamental attribution error. Symptoms of depression in different cultures Marsella: Studied women who received hospital treatment for depression.
Sampled women in general population, aged They were interviewed about possible stressful life. However interviews suffer from researcher and participant bias. The diathesis-stress model better explains depression as an interaction of genetic vulnerability and stressful experiences.
The Diathesis Stress Model: Jaeger et al — AIM: Jaeger et al sampled medical and nursing students across 12 countries. Self-report method was used to obtain data on body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and dieting behavior.
A series of 10 body silhouettes, designed to be as culture-free as possible were shown to the participants to assess body dissatisfaction.
Jaeger found that body dissatisfaction was highest in those countries with high levels of Bulimia. This demonstrates that body dissatisfaction is a better predictor of Bulimia than self-esteem or weight.
Such a study supports a socio-cultural explanation of eating disorders. Body dissatisfaction can only be a result of idealized body images portrayed in the media.
Western countries are more exposed to these images, which may explain why countries in the process of westernization are experiencing increasing numbers of Bulimia. Explanations of the disorder must be considered at a macro-level society rather than as originating solely within the individual micro-level.
However it is important to note that this was a natural experiment, in which the IV culture was not under the control of the experimenter. Therefore we cannot conclude that culture causes differences in body dissatisfaction and the subsequent risk for bulimia.
Also ignores genetics and is not a representative sample.There is a vast and vibrant science of learning, in which researchers from psychology, education, and neuroscience study basic principles of learning and memory.
When you study for a test, you incorporate your past knowledge into learning this new knowledge. Psychology. Researchers and clinicians in psychology work across a vast array of sub-disciplines, including applied psychology, addictions, cognitive psychology, developmental and educational psychology, experimental physiological psychology, forensic psychology, neuropsychology, and behavioral and cognitive therapy.
Pp. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. with many factors acting together in various contexts to produce systematic, dynamic variation. For instance, It can be observed that adults frequently show regression a digital computer).
Likewise, different meta-metaphors drive fundamental views of adult cognitive development. We. Sociocultural Theory in Early Childhood Development - Sociocultural is defined as relating to, or involving a combination of social (relating to human society) and cultural (taste in art and manners that are favored by a social group) factors.” (Socialcultural, .
To what extent do biological, cognitive and socio-cultural factors influence human development? (Gender Role Formation) II. Evaluate psychological research (that is, theories and/or studies) () argued it is an interaction of these factors with biological factors that best explain difficulties in cognitive development.
However the biological perspective recognises according to Merriam S.B, Caffarella R.S, and Baumgartner L.
M. (, pg ) that “we are physical beings.” and that there are in fact three further components to adult development: psychological, sociocultural and integrative.