Philosophy of law "But what, after all, is a law? Normative jurisprudence asks "what should law be? The concept of "natural law" emerged in ancient Greek philosophy concurrently and in connection with the notion of justice, and re-entered the mainstream of Western culture through the writings of Thomas Aquinasnotably his Treatise on Law.
But when it comes to the test of ethics, to allotting autistics rudimentary ethical consideration, all sides and factions for and against ABA have persistently and thoroughly failed. In an investigation of this failure, diverse aspects of ethical standards in the autism-ABA industry are explored and compared.
A framework emerges suggesting the nature and scope, as well as the causes and motives, of the unethical treatment of autistics. At the same time, a narrative emerges. It resonates with the past and current unethical treatment of other atypical human beings.
Since ethics problems do not spontaneously resolve themselves, instead tending to accumulate and escalate, the interlocking framework and narrative are put to work. This results in specific ethical challenges, and some proposed remedies, for behaviourists of all kinds who have as their goal extinguishing autistic behaviour, and therefore autistic people.
Introducing behaviourists and behaviourist ethics Not everyone is a behaviourist these days, but so long as the target for behaviour modification is autistic, the ranks are impressive. Apart from the behaviour analysts themselves, autism-ABA adherents include therapists, educators and instructors; parents, grandparents, friends-of-the-family; funding bodies, autism societies, professional and pressure groups; professors, lawyers, judges, and journalists; politicians, bureaucrats, and the Quebec Human Rights Commission.
All have failed to notice that they themselves are behaving unethically. Instead, they are taking for granted that any ethical concerns about ABA have already been dealt with and disposed of.
When systematically hurting autistic children in ABA programs raised ethical concerns, to the point where laws were passed, ABA became non-aversive: The just concerns about continuing physical punishment of autistics in other programs can no longer be used as ammunition against ABA.
Then there is the behaviourist quandary of whether a controlled trial of autism-ABA would be ethical, since the controls would be deprived of this presumed-to-be-effective treatment.
ABA goes nowhere without its unique vapour trail of adjectives like "scientifically-proven" and "medically-necessary". Parents and researchers alike have found this sky-writing difficult to resist.
In consequence, protocols like randomized assignment and matched controls have been switched from the good science camp to the bad ethics camp: An objective observer might notice how circular this logic is, and how expedient.
Rhetoric in autism treatment Another issue has earned the attention of behaviourists.
Inthe mother of two autistic boys testified before a US bioethics committee. She pleaded that applying ethical standards, in the area of informed consent, to autism research would be harmful to autistics. With the authority of its hefty advisory board, ASAT reported that good science and good ethics are incompatible in autism.
Further, ethics would be destructive of autism research and the death of hope for parents of autistics everywhere.
More recently, Dr Catherine Maurice tackled a series of autism-ABA ethics questions, about recovery from autism, posed by an on-line journal with "Leadership" in its title.
Her stratagem was to substitute in each question the word "cancer" for the word "autism". When I asked ASAT to explain the scientific basis for equating autism with cancer, they responded with silence, not science.
The behaviourist behaviour of recruiting cancer has also found free reign in legal battles arising from the sheer expense of sustaining the autism-ABA industry.
When a judge, or Dr Maurice, or any behaviourist yells cancer, any ethical consideration for autistic people obediently hurries to the nearest exit.
False equations and false oppositions A false opposition is a perversion of reality using an if-then or either-or construction: False oppositions if autistic children must be treated ethically then they will be doomed and false equations autism equals cancer have elbowed aside empirical evidence and have become central to the legal, scientific, and popular promotion of the autism-ABA industry.
Here are some more: Autism equals tragedy, suffering, and doom. Either autistic children are successfully treated through early intensive behaviour interventions or they are condemned to a life of isolation and institutionalization.
Autism is incompatible with achievement, intelligence, physical and psychological integrity, dignity, autonomy, and learning: Either the autistic gets ABA, and comes to resemble a non-autistic, or the autistic is doomed.
Autism equals a nuclear bomb, a stroke, diabetes, a terminal illness, being "riddled with pain from a terrible accident", and again, always, cancer. If you are against ABA then you are for institutionalization. If ABA is criticized then children will be destroyed.
Autism is incompatible with humanity: If an autistic is deprived of ABA then he will end up being thrown to the floor and sat on by four large attendants in a group home.
All these overlapping views were expressed by behaviourist parents, judges, organizations, lawyers, and experts, in documents and in conversation.
As parents of autistic children, they have endured emotional and financial hardships and grief unknown to most people. They have exerted tremendous energy educating themselves and others, including physicians, with respect to the nature of the autistic disorder and the efficacy of Early IBI.
These children, left untreated, will be doomed to a life of institutionalization and looking inwardly only. Any ethical consideration for autistics had long vacated the premises.Vital Text:" Ethics for Bureaucrats An Essay on Law and Values, Second Edition Reading improves your empathy.
This is one of the direct reading results. Studies show that engaging in reading and character challenges in this book brings a sense of identification and consequent empathy for the efforts of timberdesignmag.commized.
This essay is adapted from the Theodore H.
White Lecture, sponsored by the Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy at Harvard on November An Analysis of the Ethical Framework Governing the Conduct of Albanian Public Servants maintain high standards and values of ethics and conduct in public administra-tion.
Additionally, this section analyzes the steps undertaken by Albania to adopt J.A. Ethics for Bureaucrats. An Essay on Law and Values. Marcel Dekker Inc., , pp Public Accountability and Ethics Essay Sample Accountability – Is a formal relationship governed by a process. As a relationship, it involves a person or body in a position of authority assigning or negotiating with others the performance of certain responsibilities, .
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. Home | Index | Blog | No Autistics Allowed: Autism Society Canada Speaks For Itself.
THE MISBEHAVIOUR OF BEHAVIOURISTS Ethical Challenges to the Autism-ABA Industry. by Michelle Dawson.
Since the publication of O. Ivar Lovaas' landmark study, scientific and legal attention has been lavished on Applied Behaviour Analysis as an .