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Historical context The concept of "like cures like" may have been suggested by Hippocrates around BC, when he prescribed a small dose of mandrake root to treat mania, knowing it produces mania in much larger doses.
The term "homeopathy" was coined by Hahnemann and first appeared in print in Being sceptical of Cullen's theory concerning cinchona 's use for curing malariaHahnemann ingested some bark specifically to investigate what would happen.
He experienced fever, shivering and joint pain: From this, Hahnemann came to believe that all effective drugs produce symptoms in healthy individuals similar to those of the diseases that they treat, in accord with the "law of similars" that had been proposed by ancient physicians.
Subsequent scientific work showed that cinchona cures malaria because it contains quininewhich kills the Plasmodium falciparum parasite that causes the disease; the mechanism of action is unrelated to Hahnemann's ideas.
These tests required subjects to test the effects of ingesting substances by clearly recording all of their symptoms as well as the ancillary conditions under which they appeared. Given that there are many orders of magnitude fewer than molecules in the small sample, the likelihood that it contains even one molecule of the original herb is extremely low.
In the Organon, Hahnemann introduced the concept of "miasms" as "infectious principles" underlying chronic disease. If, however, these symptoms were suppressed by medication, the cause went deeper and began to manifest itself as diseases of the internal organs.
Hahnemann believed psora to be the cause of such diseases as epilepsycancerjaundicedeafnessand cataracts. The theory of miasms has been criticized as an explanation developed by Hahnemann to preserve the system of homeopathy in the face of treatment failures, and for being inadequate to cover the many hundreds of sorts of Benchmark assessment: epidemiology of tuberculosis essay, as well as for failing to explain disease predispositions, as well as geneticsenvironmental factors, and the unique disease history of each patient.
Throughout the 19th century, dozens of homeopathic institutions appeared in Europe and the United States,  and bythere were 22 homeopathic colleges and 15, practitioners in the United States.
Sir John Forbesphysician to Queen Victoriasaid in that the extremely small doses of homeopathy were regularly derided as useless, "an outrage to human reason".
Regulation and prevalence of homeopathy According to Paul Ulrich Unschuldthe Nazi regime in Germany was fascinated by homeopathy, and spent large sums of money on researching its mechanisms, but without gaining a positive result.
Unschuld further argues that homeopathy never subsequently took root in the United Statesbut remained more deeply established in European thinking.
In the s, there were only 75 pure homeopaths practising in the U. The main findings of the report were 'there are no health conditions for which there is reliable evidence that homeopathy is effective".
Reactions to the report sparked world headlines which suggested that the NHMRC had found that homeopathy is not effective for all conditions. List of homeopathic preparations Homeopathic preparation Rhus toxicodendron, derived from poison ivy.
Ethanol is listed as being redundantly diluted in alcohol. Homeopathic preparations are referred to as "homeopathics"  or "remedies". Practitioners rely on two types of reference when prescribing: Materia Medica and repertories. A homeopathic materia medica is a collection of "drug pictures", organized alphabetically.
These entries describe the symptom patterns associated with individual preparations. A homeopathic repertory is an index of disease symptoms that lists preparations associated with specific symptoms.
In both cases different compilers may dispute particular inclusions. The first homeopathic repertory was Georg Jahr's Symptomenkodex, published in German inand translated into English as the Repertory to the more Characteristic Symptoms of Materia Medica by Constantine Hering in This version was less focused on disease categories and was the forerunner to later works by James Tyler Kent.
Homeopathy uses animal, plant, mineral, and synthetic substances in its preparations, generally referring to them using Latin or faux-Latin names. Examples include arsenicum album arsenic oxidenatrum muriaticum sodium chloride or table saltLachesis muta the venom of the bushmaster snakeopiumand thyroidinum thyroid hormone.
Some homeopaths use so-called "nosodes" from the Greek nosos, disease made from diseased or pathological products such as fecal, urinary, and respiratory discharges, blood, and tissue.
Some modern homeopaths use preparations they call "imponderables" because they do not originate from a substance but some other phenomenon presumed to have been "captured" by alcohol or lactose.
Examples include X-rays  and sunlight. Such practices have been strongly criticized by classical homeopaths as unfounded, speculative, and verging upon magic and superstition.
Serial dilution is achieved by taking an amount of the mixture and adding solvent, but the "Korsakovian" method may also be used, whereby the vessel in which the preparations are manufactured is emptied, refilled with solvent, and the volume of fluid adhering to the walls of the vessel is deemed sufficient for the new batch.
There are no laboratory assays and the importance and techniques for succussion cannot be determined with any certainty from the literature. Homeopathic dilutions Three main logarithmic potency scales are in regular use in homeopathy. Hahnemann created the "centesimal" or "C scale", diluting a substance by a factor of at each stage.
The centesimal scale was favoured by Hahnemann for most of his life. A 2C dilution requires a substance to be diluted to one part inand then some of that diluted solution diluted by a further factor of MDR TB accounts for "5%" of the reported TB cases,"27 countries" make up "85% of all MDR TB cases,"(WHO, ) and 58 countries have been confirmed to have XDR-TB (WHO, ).
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