Field experiments using stems of Sparina alternifolia as substrata indicate that Chthamalus fragilis, one of the few chthamalids to be so tested, shares with all the the balanids so far examined, the advantage of settling more readily among conspecifics than on bare substrata.
Depending on temperature, C. A non-linear response surface fitted to the allometric exponents of a family of VO2 curves for 12 treatment combinations of DO saturation and temperature was used to project oxygen consumption rates across the infaunal size spectrum. Plasticity in respiration strategies was evident, based on four simulated dynamic 32 d oxygen-temperature exposure scenarios and on simulated static oxygen-temperature exposures.
The oxyconforming strategy of C. Conversely, an oxyregulating respiration strategy was expressed at cooler temperatures under low oxygen concentration, except organisms hyper-regulated relative to normoxic conditions.
At warm temperatures, small organisms exhibited relatively greater metabolic depression than large organisms; whereas at cool temperatures, small organisms hyper-regulated relatively more than large organisms.
Dichotomous shifts in respiration strategies likely reflect a breakdown in the functioning of special adaptations, and reliance on alternative coping mechanisms. Divergent temperature-dependent respiration strategies illustrate how responses to multiple stressors can be synergistic.
Moreover, results imply that population responses to hypoxia may differ, depending on prevailing temperature regimes. These stressors may interact both environmentally Riedel et al. Environmentally, the availability of dissolved oxygen and therefore, the formation of hypoxia, are mediated by the coupled inverse physical relationship between temperature and the solubility of dissolved oxygen Meire et al.
Consequently, ocean warming threatens to exacerbate hypoxia exposure to marine organisms worldwide Deutsch et al. Through effects on cellular metabolism, temperature also modulates physiological responses Morgan Ernest et al.
As specified by the ecophysiological paradigm for aquatic ectotherms, temperature primarily controls metabolic demands for oxygen, while the supply of oxygen primarily limits metabolic capacity Fry, ; Farrell and Richards, Because metabolic rate is coupled with temperature, the interaction of temperature in connection with hypoxia is vital Field et al.
Critical ambient levels of dissolved oxygen e. At such critical thresholds, aquatic ectotherms shift from oxyregulating to oxyconforming respiration strategies Herreid, As DO concentration drops below Pcrit, aerobic respiration falls off Bridges and Brand,and anaerobic respiration may be initiated.
This threshold also signals an oxyconforming strategy and the onset of a physiological response termed metabolic depression Wu, Even though oxyconforming is adaptive in the short term, it represents an unsustainable long-term response Deutsch et al.
Oxyregulation exemplifies an alternative response to declining DO concentration Kersey Sturdivant et al. A type of oxyregulation termed hyper-regulation is herein operationally defined as heightened oxygen consumption to a level above that needed to support normal resting metabolism under normoxia at a comparable temperature.
Elevated metabolic costs associated with hyper-regulating in-turn imply a reduced aerobic scope in response to stress sensu Sokolova, The salinity range, as observed and described in the literature for the species that underwent significant changes in density around the restoration measure, is shown in Fig.
8 and Fig.
8 Indication of the salinity range of losing and profiting species by the opening of the Katse Heule connection between the Eastern Scheldt and Lake Veere. Abstract. In coastal wetlands, invasive plants often act as ecosystem engineers altering flow, light and sediments which, in turn, can affect benthic animal communities.
However. The combined effects of salinity, temperature, and photoperiod on the frequency of epitokal metamorphosis in the semelparous polychaete Neanthes succinea (Frey et . In a study of the effects of the polychaete multispecies assemblage to a sewage input, Surugiu () noted a decrease in diversity indices along organic enrichment gradient.
However, in the most impacted site this decrease in diversity was offset by the increase in dominance by two opportunistic species Alitta succinea and Polydora websteri.
Eun-Ji Won, Jae-Seong Lee and Young-Mi Lee, Combined effects of cadmium and copper on the expression of antioxidant enzyme — coding genes in the polychaete, Perinereis nuntia, Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 5, 1, (26), ().
PDF | The combined effects of salinity, temperature, and photoperiod on the frequency of epitokal metamorphosis in the semelparous polychaete Neanthes succinea (Frey et .